IEC IEEE 12207:2017 Systems and software engineering Software life cycle processes

The enabling systems include the manufacturing system to produce the system, support systems such as support equipment to maintain the system, and verification systems to test the system. The practice of concurrent engineering demands that these life-cycle considerations be addressed early and in a coordinated fashion. As a result, the enabling systems are developed concurrently with the operational system so that specific concerns, which may impact other parts of the life cycle, are addressed early in the development process. So far, we’ve focused on the stages of this cycle that deal with the conceptual and logical design of the data. We’ve seen how to perform conceptual data modeling using ORM, ER, or UML, and applied the Rmap algorithm to map a conceptual schema to a relational database schema.

  • System Design is a critical stage in the SDLC, where the requirements gathered during the Analysis phase are translated into a detailed technical plan.
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  • To manage and control a substantial SDLC initiative, a work breakdown structure (WBS) captures and schedules the work.
  • These changes require SE assessment to avoid loss of system capabilities while under operation.
  • During this stage of the system lifecycle, subsystems that perform the desired system functions are designed and specified in compliance with the system specification.

Although these stages differ in detail, they all have a similar sequential format that emphasizes the core activities as noted in Table 1 (concept, production, and utilization/retirement). Once you’ve completed all testing phases, it’s time to deploy your new application for customers to use. After deployment, the launch may involve marketing your new product or service so people know about its existence. If the software is in-house, it may mean implementing the change management process to ensure user training and acceptance. This phase often requires extensive programming skills and knowledge of databases.

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On hardware, this is done with frequent program reviews and a customer resident representative(s) (if appropriate). In agile development, the practice is to have the customer representative integrated into the development team. A recent study by the National Research Council (National Research Council 2008) focused on reducing the development time for US Air Force projects. User requirements analysis and agreement is part of the concept stage and is critical to the development of successful systems. Without proper understanding of the user needs, any system runs the risk of being built to solve the wrong problems.

Section 16.7 examines recent extensions to or replacements of relational databases, such as object-oriented capabilities and XML. Section 16.8 provides an introduction to metamodeling, in which schemas themselves are treated as instances of a higher level metaschema. Software is a flexible and malleable medium which facilitates iterative analysis, design, construction, verification, and validation to a greater degree than is usually possible for the purely physical components of a system. Each repetition of an iterative development model adds material (code) to the growing software base, in which the expanded code base is tested, reworked as necessary, and demonstrated to satisfy the requirements for the baseline. Maintenance involves updating an existing software product to fix bugs and ensure reliability.


Other system engineering models, the Traditional (or waterfall), the Vee, Incremental, and spiral are described in those SEBoK articles. Using the Agile Mindset aligned with the Agile Values, the Principles of Agile Development and SAFe Lean-Agile Principles can be applied to the stages of the Agile SE Life Cycle. System management software that makes Red Hat infrastructure easier to deploy, scale, and manage across any environment. This results in more work for the same number of staff, making it hard to get ahead of technological change, innovation, and business demands. These standards are removed from active status through an administrative process for standards that have not undergone a revision process within 10 years. This document provides guidance and recommendations for assurance of a selected claim about the system-of-interest by achieving the claim and showing the achievement.

system life cycle processes

While the supplied product or service may be seen as the narrow system-of-interest (NSOI) for an acquireracquirer, the acquirer also must incorporate the supporting systems into a wider system-of-interest (WSOI). These supporting systems should be seen as system assets that, when needed, are activated in response to a situation that has emerged in respect to the operation of the NSOI. The collective name for the set of supporting systems is the integrated logistics support (ILS) system. During this stage of the system lifecycle, subsystems that perform the desired system functions are designed and specified in compliance with the system specification.

Type of Value Added Products/Services

This stage involves deploying the developed system into the production environment. This includes activities such as system installation, data migration, training end-users, and configuring necessary infrastructure. Implementation requires careful planning and coordination to minimize disruptions and ensure a smooth transition from the old system to the new one. The INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook shows what each systems engineering process activity entails in the context of designing for affordability and performance.

It has been suggested that information SDLC should not be confused with system (the delivered product) life cycle. The system life cycle begins when the SDLC delivers the final product, that is, when the implementation phase begins. The objective of this activity is to extend as long as possible the life cycle of an existing system. When this is not longer feasible or efficient, the system life cycle terminates and a new SDLC commences. A Generic Life Cycle Model shows a Definition stage, a Realization Stage and a Retirement Stage.

Significance of System Design

It covers management activities related to starting a project, building a team, and managing information through the translation and localization process. This document is independent of the software tools that may be used to produce or manage information for users and applies to both printed, embedded, and mobile information. Much of its guidance is system life cycle processes applicable to information for users of systems of hardware as well as software, systems, and services. It applies to the acquisition of systems, which can be comprised of products, services, or both, as well as to the supply, development, operation, maintenance, and disposal of systems, whether performed internally or externally to an organization.

system life cycle processes

This stage includes the development of detailed designs that brings initial design work into a completed form of specifications. This work includes the specification of interfaces between the system and its intended environment, and a comprehensive evaluation of the systems logistical, maintenance and support requirements. The detail design and development is responsible for producing the product, process and material specifications and may result in substantial changes to the development specification. Many tools have evolved for use in the construction and maintenance of dependable systems, including automated specification and test generators, fault injectors, and fault profilers.

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This step involves decomposing the system into pieces, analyzing project goals, breaking down what needs to be created, and engaging users to define requirements. An output artifact does not need to be completely defined to serve as input of object-oriented design; analysis and design may occur in parallel. In practice the results of one activity can feed the other in an iterative process. This may involve training users, deploying hardware, and loading information from the prior system. There are statements made herein which do not address historical facts, and therefore could be interpreted to be forward-looking statements as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.

system life cycle processes

Today’s complex and increasingly highly connected systems face rapid obsolescence under the stress of technological change, environmental change, and rapidly evolving mission needs. For these systems to remain robust against disruption they must be architected to agilely adapt. To meet these needs, the system must be assessed to apply the process that best serves the system, subsystem or component of the system of interest (SOI).

What is configuration management?

The team iterates through the phases rapidly, delivering only small, incremental software changes in each cycle. They continuously evaluate requirements, plans, and results so that they can respond quickly to change. The agile model is both iterative and incremental, making it more efficient than other process models.